Do Bees Produce Value? A conversation between an ecological economist and a Marxist geographer

By Erik Swyngedouw and Giorgos Kallis * Erik Swyngedouw and Giorgos Kallis discuss potentialities and limits of nature's "free work" for Marx's labour theory of value. Giorgos Kallis: Erik, I remember you arguing that you cannot accept that bees do labour and contribute to value. What is the main Marxist argument against accepting the simple … Continue reading Do Bees Produce Value? A conversation between an ecological economist and a Marxist geographer